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Model Activity Task Class 8 Geography Part 3
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Answer the following questions
(i) What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the practice of cultivating crops, raising livestock, and utilizing natural resources to produce food, fiber, and other agricultural products. It involves various activities such as plowing, sowing seeds, irrigation, harvesting, and animal husbandry. Agriculture plays a vital role in providing sustenance for human populations and is essential for economic development and food security.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?
Several factors influence agriculture, including climate, soil fertility, water availability, topography, technology, and market conditions. Climate determines the type of crops that can be grown in a region, while soil fertility affects their productivity. Water availability is crucial for irrigation purposes.
Topography affects land suitability and terracing practices. Technology advancements, such as machinery and improved seeds, impact productivity. Market conditions, including demand and prices, influence agricultural practices and decision-making.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Shifting cultivation, or slash-and-burn agriculture, involves clearing land by burning vegetation and cultivating crops temporarily. Disadvantages include deforestation, soil degradation, unsustainable land use, disruption of ecosystems, and contributing to climate change.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Plantation agriculture refers to large-scale farming systems where a single crop, such as tea, coffee, rubber, or sugarcane, is grown for commercial purposes. It is characterized by the extensive use of machinery, a well-organized labor force, and specific management practices.
Plantation agriculture often requires favorable climate and soil conditions. It is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. The produce is usually intended for export and is managed by large companies or estates.
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their
Fiber crops include cotton, jute, flax, hemp, and sisal. The climatic conditions required for their growth are as follows:
- Cotton: Requires a warm climate with temperatures between 20-30°C, well-distributed rainfall of 60-100 cm, and a frost-free period of at least 210 days.
- Jute: Thrives in hot and humid conditions with temperatures ranging from 24-35°C, high rainfall of around 150-200 cm evenly spread throughout the year.
- Flax: Grows well in cooler climates with temperatures around 15-20°C and moderate rainfall of 50-75 cm.
- Hemp: Prefers temperate climates with temperatures around 15-27°C and rainfall of 75-150 cm.
- Sisal: Suitable for hot and arid regions with temperatures ranging from 20-30°C and low rainfall of around 50-100 cm.
Tick the correct answer
(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
Answer: (a)growing of fruits and vegetables.
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
Answer: (a) Brazil
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity?
Yes, agriculture is considered a primary activity in India. This is because a significant portion of the population is engaged in agricultural practices, including farming and livestock rearing. Agriculture plays a crucial role in providing food and livelihoods for a large number of people. It also contributes to the country’s GDP and is closely linked to rural development and overall economic stability.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions?
Different crops are grown in different regions due to variations in climatic conditions, soil types, and geographical features. Each crop has specific requirements for temperature, rainfall, soil fertility, and sunlight. Regions with suitable conditions for a particular crop are more likely to have higher yields and better-quality produce. Additionally, market demand, economic factors, and historical agricultural practices also influence crop choices in different regions.
Distinguish between the following
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
Primary activities refer to economic activities that involve the direct extraction or production of natural resources. These activities are based on the utilization of raw materials from the earth, such as agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing, and livestock rearing.
On the other hand, tertiary activities are economic activities that involve the provision of services rather than the production of tangible goods. These activities include sectors like retail, healthcare, education, banking, tourism, transportation, and telecommunications. Tertiary activities are focused on providing services to individuals, businesses, and other sectors of the economy.
(ii) Subsistence farming and intenstive farming.
Subsistence farming is a type of agricultural practice where farmers grow crops and raise livestock to meet the basic needs of their own family or community. It involves small landholdings, simple tools, and traditional methods, with a primary focus on self-sufficiency.
Intensive farming, on the other hand, is a modern agricultural system that aims to maximize output on a given area of land. It involves the use of advanced techniques, machinery, and high inputs of labor, capital, and technology to achieve high yields and maximize productivity for commercial purposes.
(i) Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses
available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type
of soil they grow.
Here are some general soil preferences for the mentioned crops:
- Wheat: Wheat grows well in a well-drained loamy soil.
- Rice: Rice requires clayey soil that can retain water.
- Jowar: Jowar thrives in a deep, well-drained sandy, or loamy soil.
- Bajra: Bajra prefers sandy or loamy soil with good drainage.
- Ragi: Ragi grows well in sandy or red loamy soil.
- Maize: Maize can grow in various soil types, but well-drained loamy soil is ideal.
- Oilseeds: The preferred soil type may vary depending on the specific oilseed. For example, mustard prefers well-drained loamy soil.
- Pulses: Pulses generally prefer well-drained loamy soil.
(ii) Find out the difference between the lifestyle of farmers in the USA and
India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers
and the Internet.
The lifestyle of farmers in the USA and India differs significantly. In the USA, farmers often engage in large-scale commercial agriculture, utilizing advanced machinery, technology, and modern farming practices. They have access to advanced infrastructure, resources, and markets, leading to higher standards of living.
In contrast, Indian farmers typically practice small-scale farming, relying on traditional methods and manual labor. They face challenges such as limited access to resources, fragmented landholdings, and dependence on monsoon rains. Indian farmers maintain a close connection to their cultural heritage and community, with farming often being a way of life rather than just a livelihood.
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