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Model Activity Task Class 10 History Part 3
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Q No: 1 Explain:
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
The growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to the anti-colonial movement because nationalism is a collective feeling of pride, identity, and unity among the people of a particular nation.
In the colonies, the people felt oppressed and exploited by colonial powers, which fueled their desire for independence and self-rule. Nationalism became a powerful force that united the people against colonial rule, leading to the formation of anti-colonial movements aiming to end foreign domination.
b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
The First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India because it created a favorable environment for nationalist sentiments to flourish. The war led to economic hardships, increased taxation, and recruitment of Indian soldiers.
This sparked discontent among the Indian population, fostering a sense of unity and resistance against colonial rule. The war also exposed the hypocrisy of British claims about democracy and freedom, which further fueled nationalist aspirations and demands for self-governance.
c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act because it allowed for indefinite detention without trial and curtailed civil liberties. It violated principles of justice and due process, leading to widespread protests and strikes. Indians saw it as a repressive measure aimed at suppressing their freedom and fueling their resistance against British rule.
d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement because of the Chauri Chaura incident. Violent clashes in Chauri Chaura resulted in the death of policemen, causing Gandhi to feel that the movement had lost its non-violent character. He believed that nonviolence was crucial for the success of the freedom struggle.
Q No: 2 What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
The idea of satyagraha, coined by Mahatma Gandhi, means “truth force” or “soul force.” It is a nonviolent method of resistance and persuasion, emphasizing the power of truth and moral courage. Satyagraha involves using nonviolent means to confront injustice and oppression, seeking to transform the opponent through love and compassion.
It aims to bring about social and political change by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor and mobilizing the collective strength of the people, based on the principles of truth, nonviolence, and steadfastness.
Q No: 3 Write a newspaper report on:
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Amritsar, April 13, 1919: A day that will forever be etched in the nation’s memory. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre unfolded as a dark chapter in our history. British troops, under General Dyer’s command, opened fire on a peaceful gathering of thousands, leaving countless dead and injured. The horrifying incident occurred during the Baisakhi festival, shocking the nation. Eyewitnesses recount the merciless gunfire, evoking widespread outrage and demands for justice. The aftermath of this tragic event will undoubtedly shape the course of our fight for freedom.
b) The Simon Commission
New Delhi, November 3, 1927: The arrival of the Simon Commission has ignited a wave of discontent throughout the nation. Led by Sir John Simon, the Commission’s purpose is to evaluate India’s readiness for further constitutional reforms. However, their exclusion of Indian representatives has drawn sharp criticism. Protests erupted in major cities, with citizens demanding greater Indian participation in the decision-making process. The Simon Commission’s visit has sparked a crucial debate on self-governance and intensified the call for complete independence. The outcome of this contentious commission remains uncertain.
Q No:1 List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Following the list of different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 are given below
- Students and Youth
- Urban Middle Class
- Workers and Laborers
- Lawyers and Professionals
- Educated Indians
- Political Leaders and Activists
- Business Community
- Religious and Spiritual Leaders
These various social groups joined the Non-Cooperation Movement with their distinct hopes and struggles, collectively working towards the goal of achieving independence and bringing about significant social and political changes in India.
Q No: 2 Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance
The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism due to its simplicity and powerful message. Led by Gandhi, thousands walked over 240 miles to produce salt from seawater, defying the British salt monopoly. This act exposed the unjust laws imposed by the British and inspired a nation to challenge colonial authority, showcasing the strength of nonviolent civil disobedience in the fight for independence.
Q No: 3 Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
As a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement, the experience meant empowerment and liberation for my life. It allowed me to break free from societal constraints and contribute actively to the fight for independence. Engaging in acts of civil disobedience gave me a voice, courage, and a sense of unity with fellow Indians, transforming me into an agent of change and instilling a lifelong commitment to social justice.
Q No: 4 Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because it posed challenges to the idea of a unified national identity. While some believed it would protect the interests of marginalized communities, others argued it would foster divisions and hinder the goal of a united, inclusive India.
India’s national movement and Kenya’s anti-colonial movement shared the common goal of achieving independence from British colonial rule. However, they differed in their approaches. India’s movement relied on nonviolent civil disobedience, led by figures like Gandhi, Nehru, and Bose.
Kenya’s movement involved armed resistance, with leaders like Kenyatta and Kimathi leading the struggle. Kenya achieved independence through negotiations, while India’s independence came through a combination of nonviolent struggle, negotiations, and eventual partition.
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